The Buckeye Net Signal Operating Instructions (SOI)

Signal Operating Instructions are provided in order to give the Buckeye Net operator a summary of important information required for operating on the Buckeye Net. The SOI contains reference information that every net operator should have available while operating on the net.

The Buckeye Net SOI is available in the Reference section of the Buckeye Net web site here. This SOI is valid for the day-to-day routine Buckeye Net sessions. Every Buckeye Net operator should make sure they have a copy of the current SOI available.

The first item to notice is the SOI title and effective date. The standard SOI will be titled “Buckeye Net Signal Operating Instructions”. It will have an effective date listed. This SOI will be valid beginning on the effective date until it is superseded. If your copy is dated before the online SOI, you need to download the new one.

Many drills and exercises will have their own SOI. These SOIs are valid only for that particular drill or exercise. The name of the exercise, or the words “drill” or “exercise” will be contained in the title. The SOI will have a specific date and time range for when the SOI is valid. All drill or exercise participants will be provided with this type of SOI prior to the drill or exercise.

The first actual section of the SOI is the “Callsigns Of Note” section. All Buckeye Net operators should know these callsigns and who or what they represent. The Section Manager (SM), Section Traffic Manager (STM), and Section Emergency Coordinator (SEC) are the chief policy makers for the ARRL Ohio Section. These stations may join any section NTS net at at any time. They will be treated as a priority station. Their questions will be answered and their instructions followed. The Buckeye Net Managers (NM) will be treated similarly on any Buckeye Net session.

W8SGT, “The Sarge”, is the Ohio EMA/EOC station at Columbus. This station will frequently be scheduled as part of a drill or exercise. Any time W8SGT tries to check in to a Buckeye Net session, they will be made welcome and the session NCS will do their best to accommodate the station’s wishes. W8OMR is the Ohio Military Reserve amateur radio station. They will be less likely to appear on a Buckeye Net session, however, they will be treated the same as the W8SGT station.

The “Net Frequencies” section provides a list of frequencies where Buckeye Net sessions will most likely take place. Three frequencies will be provided for each band where operation is expected to take place. Unless notified differently, look for the net session on the primary frequency of the scheduled band. Should the primary frequency be occupied, look for the net on the secondary frequency. If the secondary frequency is occupied, look for the net on the tertiary frequency.

If all three listed frequencies are occupied, start scanning up in frequency for the net. The net should be found within 15 to 20 KHz of the tertiary frequency. Chances are pretty good that if you haven’t found the net at this point, propagation conditions are the likely cause. You can check the remaining listed bands in the same manner as above in case the net was moved to another band.

The “Digital Traffic Frequencies (KHz)” section lists the frequencies at which digital traffic handling will take place. The frequencies are identified by band and frequency number. For example, the NCS may send stations to “80F4”. Read this from the SOI by looking at the “80m” row of frequencies for the frequency listed in the “F4” column. That is the frequency to change to for passing the traffic.

The frequencies listed in this section are the frequency of the suppressed carrier of your transmitter. The actual signal should be transmitted 1500 Hz above this frequency. This is accomplished when using fldigi by centering your signal on “1500” on the fldigi waterfall.

The final section of the SOI, “Fldigi Macro Set”, lists the name of the fldigi macro set that is to be used with the SOI. The standard macro set will be available for download from the Buckeye Net Reference page here. The macro set used for drills or exercises will be made available with the SOI and other drill/exercise materiel prior to the drill or exercise.

The information in the SOI is intended to make it easier to operate on a Buckeye Net session and to help ensure that all net operators have the same information available. Proper use of the SOI helps to prevent errors on the net and to increase the efficiency of net operations. Make sure you always have the appropriate and current SOI available at every Buckeye Net session.

Using The Buckeye Net fldigi Macros

This article describes the Buckeye Net set of macros for use when passing digital traffic with the fldigi and flmsg programs. All Buckeye Net operators should have these macros installed in their fldigi program and should know how they are used.

The first step is to acquire the Buckeye Net macros. They can be found here. The macros can be saved on your computer by right-clicking on the page in your browser and selecting ‘Save as …’. Make sure you remove any .txt in the file name your browser may have added. The file name must end in .mdf to work with fldigi. Move the file to the fldigi/macros directory. This directory is located at “C:\Documents and Settings\fldigi.files\macros” on a Windows system, at “~/.fldigi/macros” on a Linux system, and at “/Users/User_Login_Name/.fldigi/macros” on a Mac. You can then use the fldigi File > Macros > Open … menu selection to load in the macro file. This will load the Buckeye Net macros into the first set of macro buttons. As an alternative, you can use a text editor to copy and paste these macros into another macro file to add them to an existing set of macro buttons. The instructions for doing this are in the fldigi manual.

The macros take up all four available rows of macro buttons. If you are only seeing two rows, select the View > View/Hide 48 macros menu item. This should show all four rows.

Passing digital traffic on the Buckeye Net is done on side frequencies, that is, on frequencies other than the net frequency and on a frequency where digital modes are allowed. The procedure for passing digital traffic is the same as with voice or CW traffic. The NCS will name the receiving station followed by the sending station then name the frequency and mode to pass the traffic on. Both stations will then change frequency and prepare to pass traffic.

The receiving station will locate the proper frequency and make sure they are ready to receive traffic. The sending station will locate the proper frequency and make sure they are ready to send. The sending station will wait for the receiving station to transmit first. Both stations should make sure that the other station’s callsign is entered in the ‘Call’ field in the log area of the fldigi screen.

The receiving station, after making sure they are ready to receive will announce their presence on the frequency and their readiness to receive by sending the ‘READY >|’ macro. This is the first transmission made on the frequency. The sending station, after receiving the ready message, will proceed to send their traffic and wait for the receiver’s response.

The receiving station, if all traffic was received without error, will send the ‘RX OK >|’ macro, informing the sender that all traffic was received OK. If the traffic was not received error-free, the receiving station will request that the sender re-send their traffic by using the ‘RESEND >|’ macro. The sending station will re-send their traffic and wait for the receiving station’s response. If the traffic is received without error, the receiver will send the ‘RX OK >|’ macro to acknowledge receipt of the traffic. If the traffic was received with errors, the receiving station again requests a re-send and the sending station re-sends their traffic. If this third attempt fails to produce error-free reception, the receiving station sends the ‘ERR-BTN >|’ macro. No more attempts to send the traffic will be made without further instructions from the NCS.

Both stations will wait on the frequency for approximately 30 seconds in case another station was sent to the frequency for one of the stations. If, after waiting, no other station is heard, both stations return to the net frequency and announce their return, receiving station first. If any problems were encountered, the receiving station informs the NCS on their return.

A station sent to a side frequency to pass traffic after another station finishes will change to the designated frequency and mode, type the desired receiver’s callsign in the fldigi “Call” field, and make sure they can copy their desired station’s signals. When the receiving station finishes sending, the new sender announces their presence using the ‘TFC >>’ and ‘TFC ||’ sequence of macros.

The sending station sends the ‘TFC >>’ macro and immediately types in the number of messages they have to send in the fldigi blue transmit window after the word “have “. Send the ‘TFC ||’ macro to end the sequence immediately after entering the number of messages.

Having received the sending station’s announcement, the receiving station enters the sending station’s callsign in the fldigi “Call” field. When ready to receive, the receiving station sends the ‘READY >|’ macro and transmissions continue as outlined above.

These macros should be enough to handle most traffic passing situations. Should stations need to converse directly, the ‘TX/RX’, ‘TX >>’, and ‘RX ||’ macros are provided. The ‘TX/RX’ macro toggles transmit and receive modes. If you are in receive mode, selecting the ‘TX/RX’ macro puts you in transmit mode. If you are in transmit mode, selecting the ‘TX/RX’ macro puts you in receive mode. The ‘TX >>’ macro forces you into transmit mode. The ‘RX ||’ macro forces you into receive mode.

The ‘WX’, ‘TEST >|’, and ‘ID >|’ macros are convenience macros. They will probably not be needed in most traffic passing situations. The ‘WX’ macro gets a weather report from the default weather station. This weather report is for local information and is not sent over the air. The ‘TEST >|’ macro sends a short test message. The ‘ID >|’ macro sends the station’s ID, if needed.

These macros are provided to aid in the efficient passing of digital traffic and are integral to the Buckeye Net’s traffic handling procedures. With practice, the use of these macros greatly improves the efficiency of digital traffic handling.

Using Red Cross Forms On flmsg

The American Red Cross has made custom forms available for use in the flmsg program. These forms are not included with the base flmsg installation and must be downloaded separately and installed on your computer.

Download The Forms
The forms may be downloaded from the W1HKJ at http://www.w1hkj.com/. Once on the W1HKJ web site, select ‘flmsg’ from the ‘Download’ column where you download the flmsg program. Select ‘templates’ from the displayed index.

Install The Forms
The index being displayed are the individual Red Cross .html custom forms, a .zip file of all the forms, and two .pdf files with instructions for Red Cross use of the forms. Download the .zip file to your computer. This file contains all of the custom Red Cross .html forms and the two .pdf files. Copy the .zip file to your NBEMS/CUSTOM directory and unzip the file. This directory is located at “C:\Documents and Settings\NBEMS.files\CUSTOM” on a Windows system, at “~/.nbems/CUSTOM” on a Linux system, and at “/Users/User_Login_Name/.nbems/CUSTOM” on a Mac. Move the two .pdf files to somewhere you can read them.

Using The Forms
In an exercise with Red Cross personnel or in a real emergency situation you will probably be given a filled-out form on a USB flash drive. You can download a filled-out test message form here. Right click on the file in your browser and select ‘Save as…’. Make sure you remove any .txt in the file name your browser may have added. The file name must end in .k2s to work with flmsg. You can also use the flmsg program to create your own test message. Instructions on how to do this are covered later in this article.

The Red Cross form is an flmsg custom form and will have a filename that ends in ‘.k2s’. You can copy the test message to a USB flash drive, or to your desktop, to make it easy to find.

Once you have a test message, open up your flmsg program. Left click on the ‘Form’ menu item at the top of the flmsg window. Move your cursor down to the ‘Custom’ entry. Move your cursor to any form listed and left click on it. The menu will disappear and the form will appear in your flmsg window. The filename will be “new.k2s”. This preliminary procedure sets up flmsg to find your test form.

To load your test form, Left click on the flmsg ‘File’ menu. Left click on the ‘Open’ menu entry. A file finder menu will appear. Use the file finder window to locate your test message wherever you stored it. The test message filename should end in ‘.k2s’. Highlight the test message then select ‘Open’. This will load the test message into flmsg.

The flmsg program window only shows the field names and field contents of each field, one field per line. This is the data that will be transmitted. This eliminates all of the overhead of the .html form that makes it look pretty and makes the transmission much faster than transmitting the entire form.

To view the form as it was filled out, left click on the ‘View Form’ button on the flmsg window. Your browser should pop up with the form and it’s contents displayed. You can only view the form this way. You cannot change it.

Use the ‘Edit Form’ button if you need to change the form. The form will pop up in your browser. This time, you will be able to edit the contents of the message.

Create A Test Message
You can use your flmsg program to create your own test message. Select the ‘Form’ menu item then move the cursor over the ‘Custom’ menu item. Select the desired form from the flyout menu. The empty form is now loaded in your flmsg window. Select the ‘Edit Form’ button and fill out the form. When you are done, select ‘File’ then ‘Save As’ and save the file wherever you would like to save it on your system.

Sending The Form
Once the form is filled out and loaded into flmsg, you can send it like any other message. You can either ‘Autosend’ it or send it via the ARQ ‘Send’ button. A custom Red Cross form is handled just like any other built-in form once it’s loaded into flmsg.

Delivering The Form
If you receive a custom Red Cross form, You can save it to a USB flash drive or you can view it in your browser and print a paper copy for delivery. Again, a custom form is handled just like any other built-in form once it’s in flmsg.

Designing An NTS Section Traffic Net – Part 4

This is the fourth, and final, part of the “Designing An NTS Section Traffic Net” series. We looked at the basic requirements for our section net in parts 1 through 3 of the series. In this part, we will take those requirements and constraints, refine and organize them, and describe the initial design and operation of the Ohio Section NTS traffic net — the Buckeye Net.

The Buckeye Net mission statement is as follows:

The mission of the Buckeye Net is to provide a pool of well-trained radio operators capable of the accurate and efficient transfer of formal message traffic via medium and long haul HF radio during times of disaster or emergency on the behalf of the Amateur Radio Emergency Service and their served agencies within the ARRL’s Ohio Section.

The remainder of this article will describe how we will accomplish this mission.

Emergency Operations

The Buckeye Net will act to provide the relay of formal record traffic on the behalf of any entity served by the Ohio Section ARES. The majority of the traffic will most likely be FEMA ICS forms and amateur radio radiograms.

Liaison will be maintained with the NTS Eighth Region Net providing two-way access throughout the U. S. for net stations. The Buckeye Net will maintain liaison with stations other than those of the Amateur Radio Service via the 60 meter HF interoperability channels. These may be with MARS, FEMA, or any other federal or state agency with access to these frequencies. The Buckeye Net will maintain liaison with the State of Ohio EOC. These liaison activities will occur on the section net level in order to maintain constant access with and between these stations and the rest of the Ohio Sections’ participating stations throughout the state. Liaison with other organizations and/or agencies will be maintained as needed to serve the communication needs of the Ohio section.

The Buckeye Net network will be based on the standard NTS net structure consisting of a net manager (NM), net control station (NCS), assistant net control station (ANCS), and, liaison stations carrying traffic to both higher and lower level nets.

Buckeye Net operation will be activated on the request of the Section Manager (SM), Section Traffic Manager (STM), Section Emergency Coordinator (SEC), section net manager (NM), any ARES District Emergency Coordinator (DEC), or, any ARES County Emergency Coordinator (EC).

The first net to be activated will be the section-level net. This section-level net will also be the last net to be deactivated. Section-level liaison stations will be assigned as needed and as soon as stations become available. The network will expand or shrink as needed by activating or deactivating additional nets at the Ohio NTS Region or  Ohio ARES district levels, as determined by the needs of the served agencies and the availability of operating stations at any given time. The Buckeye Net will be prepared to operate 24 hours per day for as long as the emergency lasts and communications support is needed.

Operating Frequencies

One of the great strengths the Amateur Radio Service offers during an emergency is frequency agility. The service has access to frequency bands throughout the MF and HF spectrum. In addition, amateur operators are, generally, not restricted to channelized operation. Amateurs may operate on any frequency within any band authorized for the mode in use at the time. Net operating frequencies will be assigned, generally, from the frequency band that provides the best propagation characteristics for the time of day and day of the year.

The vast majority of net operation will occur via NVIS propagation. Most network operation will occur on the 75m/80m band. Operation on the 60m interoperability channels will be maintained as long as that band is usable. Stations will be prepared to change frequency between the 160m, 75m/80m, 60m, and 40m bands as propagation conditions dictate. Other frequency bands, including VHF and UHF bands, will be used as needed by stations equipped for the desired operation.

Operating Modes

Buckeye Net operation will, generally, use SSB voice for general net operations. Operation will switch to CW only if no other band is available to maintain SSB voice operation, and, only as long as such conditions exist. Operation will return to SSB voice as soon as it becomes practical to do so.

Traffic may be passed via SSB voice, CW, or digital mode depending on the characteristics of the traffic, urgency of delivery needed, and propagation conditions. ICS forms and any other traffic that is long or any traffic where high accuracy is required will generally be sent via digital modes. When large quantities of messages need to be sent, digital modes will also be used. Messages that are relatively short and where few messages need to be sent may be sent via SSB voice. When conditions exist where voice and/or digital modes are unable to get through and the message can’t wait for better conditions, CW may be used to pass that traffic.

Non-emergency Operation

Emergencies and disasters requiring the communications services provided by the Buckeye Net are few and far between. When such situations do occur, however, there will be a need for very many well-trained, knowledgeable, and experienced traffic handlers to fill all net roles. The day-to-day operation of the Buckeye Net will serve to provide experience and training opportunities for those radio amateurs desiring to become effective traffic handlers.

Day-to-day operation on the Buckeye Net will provide opportunities to develop and improve radio communication skills  in voice, digital, and CW operation and traffic handling.

The Buckeye Net will participate in training exercises of all sizes and complexities. They will range from single-session tests of capabilities to large-scale exercises involving any and all ARES served government and non-government agencies.

Participation in amateur radio activities outside of the Buckeye Net that provide relevant experience will be encouraged. Activities, such as the annual Armed Forces Day cross-band radio event, provide experience in cross-band operation with a radio service outside of the Amateur Radio service. Frequent participation in contests provides opportunities to develop and improve operation skills under difficult conditions and under pressure to perform well. Multi-day contests provide needed experience choosing the best bands at all times of the day or night and improves understanding of HF propagation.

Conclusion

The Buckeye Net role in a disaster is to relay formal message traffic accurately and efficiently. It takes skilled and experienced operators to perform the required tasks at a high level. These skills include net operation, radio operation using all modes, understanding of propagation conditions and how to overcome adverse conditions. Net control stations need to make on-the-spot decisions in routing traffic and assigning stations to best meet the needs of the originating and receiving agencies. Net managers and net controls need to be able to understand net operations, under all conditions, in order to bring appropriate subnets up and down and assign appropriate frequencies, modes and stations.

The above-mentioned skills and abilities are developed and honed by study, practice, and experience. Participation in the Buckeye Net’s day-to-day operation, along with frequent exercises, will provide net-specific knowledge and skills that will enhance an operator’s skills acquired in normal amateur radio operation. Experienced Buckeye Net operators are the stations that are best able to perform traffic handling and net operation in the stress and conditions likely to be experienced in an actual emergency situation.

Designing An NTS Section Traffic Net – Part 3

This is the third part of a series of articles about designing an NTS section net. In Part 1, we used the Buckeye Net Mission statement to lay out what the net must accomplish. In Part 2, we began looking at the foundational requirements and constraints to determine how the net must look. In this third part, we will expand on what was begun in part two. We will narrow down the operating frequencies we need for operation of the net. We will also look deeper into the structure of the Buckeye Net required to serve the net’s users.

Operating Frequencies

We determined in part one of the series that the section net needs to serve the entire section. In the case of the Buckeye Net, we need to reach from any one place within the State of Ohio to any other one place within the State.

The State of Ohio is approximately 225 miles from the western edge to the eastern edge of the State. It is also approximately 225 miles from north to south. The longest distance within the State, from Conneaut in the northeast to Cincinnati in the southwest is a bit less than 300 miles. These distances are much longer than can be covered by a simplex VHF or UHF net, thus requiring the use of HF frequencies.

Fortunately, we can use Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) propagation to reach all of the stations within the State. NVIS propagation is simply using typical HF ionospheric propagation characteristics in a way that emphasizes enhanced propagation within relatively short distances. Normally, amateur radio operators are interested in contacting stations at great distances from their own station. This kind of propagation requires launching our signal at a low angle so that when the F layer refracts it back toward earth, we’ve achieved maximum distance. We use a dipole at a high elevation or even a vertical antenna in order to keep a low angle of radiation. In order to achieve NVIS propagation, we can use a simple dipole antenna at a relatively low height. Old-timers may remember calling this type of antenna installation as a “cloud burner”. This is exactly the effect we need for NVIS operation. The relatively high angle of radiation refracts the transmitted signal back down within the “skip zone”, thus achieving NVIS propagation with solid signals out to 300 – 400 miles. A dipole placed between approximately 0.1 to 0.2 wavelengths high achieves this type of propagation.

Antenna height, however, is not the only consideration for achieving NVIS propagation. NVIS propagation is most pronounced at frequencies from 2 MHz through about 10 MHz. Transmit frequencies above 10 MHz tend to not be refracted back into the skip zone. As the transmit frequency increases above 10 MHz, the signal tends to pass through the ionosphere rather than refract back into the skip zone.

The ham bands that are likely to exhibit NVIS propagation are the amateur radio 160 meter, 80 meter, 75 meter, 60 meter, 40 meter, and, 30 meter bands. These are the bands of most use in carrying out NVIS communications within the Ohio section. These are the bands an NTS section net station should be able to use. Most section net activity will typically be on the 75/80 meter bands. The 160m, 60m, 40m, and 30m bands will be needed for use in specific conditions and/or situations.

Network Size

The next question to address is to determine how many stations might need to check in to the section net. We determined earlier that the ideal net should have seven to ten stations in order to maintain reasonable efficiency. If the section were to experience an emergency covering the entire Ohio section, we would need, as a minimum, an NCS, ANCS, 8RN representative,and 88 county EOCs. If we add interoperability stations and some transient stations, we could easily exceed 100 stations in the network. Obviously, a single net is inadequate to handle such a number of stations.

The solution to this problem is to add sub-nets to the top-level section net. The Ohio Section ARES has divided the 88 counties of the section into ten ARES districts. As a first stab at organizing the section net, we could specify an NTS HF net to cover each district. Assuming one liaison representative for each district net, the section net would have an NCS, ANCS, 8RN rep, and ten district liaisons. The section net size would have 13 stations, minimum. If we add the state EOC, a rep for 60 meter interoperability, and several transient stations, the net far exceeds the desired size.  Adding ten ARES district nets is a start, but, is not sufficient in the worst of cases.

In the state of Ohio, FEMA divides the state into five FEMA regions. We can also consider dividing the Ohio section into five NTS regions, Now, our top-level section net consists of an NCS, ANCS, 8RN rep, five NTS region reps, the state EOC, and a 60 meter interoperability rep. This sets the section top-level net at ten stations. This number is within a reasonable span-of-control and would allow for several transient stations without much problem.

section_net.png

This hierarchical network structure provides a template for the activation of the section net under any conditions while keeping the size of any individual net within a reasonable span-of-control. The section top-level net can be activated first. Additional sub-nets can be added or dropped as the situation warrants. Each sub-net will follow the basic NTS net structure, that is, net manager, NCS, ANCS, and liaison stations. This structure allows for maximum flexibility. Activation and deactivation of any particular sub-net, or group of sub-nets, can be determined by the needs dictated by the situation at any given time.

Network Scalability

The ARES is set up to focus on serving the needs of a single county. The communication needs of the county are coordinated by the ARES county EC. We will assume that the individual county is the smallest unit that the section net will serve.

The smallest emergency would occur within a single county. The existing ARES VHF/UHF net would likely be all that is needed to handle the communication needs and the section net would not need to be activated. Should the need arise for the county to communicate with the state EOC, an HF-equipped local station could make the needed link directly with the state EOC.

The need for the Buckeye Net would occur if the emergency included an area that was too large to be reached by local VHF/UHF nets. Perhaps a winter weather system is coming down affecting the northeast corner of the state. Knowing that the emergency will progress slowly, from northeast to southwest, the Buckeye Net could be brought up in stages. The first level of activation would be the section level net. The section level net would consist of  the section NCS and section ANCS. Knowing that the weather will eventually cover the entire state, the state EOC joins the section net. Each affected county will join the section net as the weather system arrives and communication with each other and with the state EOC is needed.

Network diagram for the initial net.

At some point, the net will have six or seven counties joined in and the net would have ten stations or so. We can reasonably expect this number to rapidly increase becoming too many stations for maximum operating efficiency. The northeast corner of the section is covered by ARES Districts 5 and 10. A net covering each of these districts can be activated relieving the load on the section net. In this case, we would have an ARES D5 HF net and an ARES D10 HF net. Each of these district nets would send representatives to the section net to relay traffic going outside the district and to pick up traffic destined for the district net. Additional counties outside of D5 and D10 would continue checking in to the section net.

nts_net_l2.png

As the storm advances, counties from ARES districts 1, 6, 7, and 9 start joining the section net. Those district nets activate their respective district HF nets. Adding four more liason stations would start to overload the net. Anticipating this need, The necessary NTS region nets would be activated and send their representatives to the section net. Existing district liaisons and county liaisons would be excused from the section top-level net and report in to their district or regional nets.

nts_net_l3

The ability to add and drop sub-nets makes the Buckeye Net both flexible and scalable. Sub-nets can be added in any order and in any number depending on the current needs. Should some unanticipated net show up, they can be coordinated by the top-level net and assigned to the section, region, or district level as is most appropriate for their purpose.

The state EOC and 60m rep stations are shown only on the top-level section net. This arrangement makes any 60m interoperability net (OHMR, FEMA, etc.) and the state EOC easily available at all times to all stations. Should any station at any level have emergency traffic, they can bring it immediately to the top-level net. Routine and priority traffic can be routed through the appropriate net liaison stations. The top-level section net is the first one activated and the last to be de-activated. This makes the 8RN, 60m rep, and state EOC immediately available for the entire section throughout the entire emergency.

Summary

We have further refined the frequency needs of the Buckeye Net in order to serve the needs of the entire section. We have taken a deeper look into the structural requirements for the Buckeye Net in this article. We developed a hierarchical structure to serve as a template for activating the network in an emergency. We examined the flexibility and scalability issues and have presented a proposed solution to meet these requirements.

In the next, and final, part of this series, we will put all the things we looked at in this and the previous articles into a more definite structure and add some final touches in describing the Buckeye Net. Finally, we will discuss some ideas for developing the training needs and non-emergency Buckeye Net structure and operation.